Daniel J. Wigdor

Courier / Mailing Address

Department of Computer Science
40 St. George St. STE BA4283
Toronto, ON, M5S 2E4
t. +1 (416) 946-8892 (for couriers)

t. +1 (416) 978-7777
daniel@dgp.toronto.edu

Office

Room BA5260,
40 St. George St.

Lab

Dynamic Graphics Project

I am an assistant professor of computer science at the University of Toronto. My general area of research is the leveraging of computing technology to enable users to live better lives. This work includes the development of user interface software, interaction methods, sensor hardware, new device form factors, development platforms, and operating system enhancements. Several projects are ongoing in my group; two major ones are focused on zero-latency, “high performance” user experiences, and on the enablement of a “symphony of devices”.

High Performance UX: the ultimate aim of ubiquitous computing is to seamlessly blend the physical and digital worlds. One of the primary barriers to achieving this is latency: the time between an input to the system, and its response to that input. Latency impairs performance, adds frustration, causes “cyber sickness”, and in general is a sign of low-quality. Our aim is to purge all systems of latency. We began by examining the psychophysics of latency perception and its impacts on human performance, which gave us a baseline target for our systems (2ms – 50 times faster than is typical today). To achieve this, we have developed software tools, re-architected OS input processing, built models of human movement to enable prediction, and have developed sensors capable of detecting input 3 orders of magnitude more quickly than current commercial devices. This project continues in several directions within the group here at U of T. It also has spun-out as a startup company, Tactual Labs, which is seeking to commercialize the work.

Symphony of Devices: The Internet of Things promises a future in which devices can be always connected, and tied-in to your personal cloud. The present manifestation of this is a series of technologies which allow people to switch between devices: watch a movie on your phone, and push a button to move it to the TV. This is a terrible waste. Why not enable user experiences to seamlessly expand to take advantage of all of the technologies in a space? Symphony of Devices is an examination of how user experiences of the future will exist between devices, rather than run on a particular platform or device. This project has spanned many years, and has included in-situ study of users, the development of unique user interface technologies, and the creation of a platform which enables applications to grow and shrink to any configuration of devices available to it. Recently, two of the papers from this project (Panelrama, which describes our platform, and Duet, which describes interaction methods) were chosen as People’s Choice Best Talks at CHI 2014, and Duet was chosen as a Best Paper.

RECENT PUBLICATIONS

(see Research for a list of all publications).

Slide1_b

High-rate, low-Latency multi-touch sensing with simultaneous orthogonal multiplexing

Darren Leigh, Clifton Forlines, Ricardo Jota, Steven Sanders, and Daniel Wigdor (2014). High rate, low-latency multi-touch sensing with simultaneous orthogonal multiplexing. In Proceedings of the 27th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology (UIST ’14). ACM, New York, NY, USA, 355-364.

haijun

Zero-latency tapping: using hover information to predict touch locations and eliminate touchdown latency

Haijun Xia, Ricardo Jota, Benjamin McCanny, Zhe Yu, Clifton Forlines, Karan Singh, and Daniel Wigdor. (2014). Zero-latency tapping: using hover information to predict touch locations and eliminate touchdown latency. In Proceedings of the 27th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology (UIST ’14). ACM, New York, NY, USA, 205-214.

Untitled

Duet: Exploring joint interactions on a smart phone and a smart watch

Xiang ‘Anthony’ Chen, Tovi Grossman, Daniel Wigdor, and George Fitzmaurice. 2014. Duet: exploring joint interactions on a smart phone and a smart watch. In Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI ’14). ACM, New York, NY, USA, 159-168.

Untitled

Let’s kick it: how to stop wasting the bottom third of your large screen display

Ricardo Jota, Pedro Lopes, Daniel Wigdor, and Joaquim Jorge 2014. Let’s Kick It: How to Stop Wasting the Bottom Third of your Large Screen Display. Conditionally accepted to appear in Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI ’14). ACM, New York, NY, USA.

Untitled

Dive In! Real-time interaction with always-ready, progressively-loaded interactive data visualizations

Michael Glueck, Azam Khan, and Daniel Wigdor. 2014. Dive in!: enabling progressive loading for real-time navigation of data visualizations. In Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI ’14). ACM, New York, NY, USA, 561-570.

Untitled

Conductor: Enabling and understanding cross-device interaction

Peter Hamilton and Daniel Wigdor. 2014. Conductor: enabling and understanding cross-device interaction. In Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI ’14). ACM, New York, NY, USA, 2773-2782.

Untitled

Slide to X: Unlocking the potential of smartphone unlocking

Khai Truong, Thariq Shihipar, and Daniel Wigdor. 2014. Slide to X: unlocking the potential of smartphone unlocking. In Proceedings of the 32nd annual ACM conference on Human factors in computing systems (CHI ’14). ACM, New York, NY, USA, 3635-3644.

Untitled

Panelrama: Enabling easy specification of cross-device web applications

Jishuo Yang and Daniel Wigdor. 2014. Panelrama: enabling easy specification of cross-device web applications. In Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI ’14). ACM, New York, NY, USA, 2783-2792.

stephanie

A field study of multi-device workflows in distributed workspaces

Stephanie Santosa and Daniel Wigdor. 2013. A field study of multi-device workflows in distributed workspaces.  In Proceedings of the 2013 ACM international joint conference on Pervasive and ubiquitous computing (UbiComp ’13). ACM, New York, NY, USA,  63-72.

mglueck

A model of navigation for very large data views

Michael Glueck, Tovi Grossman & Daniel Wigdor. 2013. A Model of Navigation for Very Large Data Views. Graphics Interface (GI ’13). 8 pages.

Ricardo Jota Recognized with Mitacs Postdoctoral Award

Ricardo Jota, my PDF, was recently presented with the Mitacs Postdoctoral Award for Outstanding Innovation for his research with Tactual Labs. We are ... more

Invited talk at GI 2015

I have been asked to give an Invited Talk at GI 2015 in Halifax, NS, June 3-5, 2015. Hope to see you there.

Speaking at Yahoo! Research

I will be giving an invited talk at Yahoo! Research in Sunnyvale on August 8 entitled “Vertical Software Design & Cross-Device Software ... more

Capstone Course Petitions

Students interested in taking my capstone design course (CSC490): between August 1 and August 31, send me an email with the subject line ... more

Speaking at Microsoft Research

I will be speaking at Microsoft Research in Redmond on June 10, entitled “Enabling a Symphony of Devices”.

CONTACT & DIRECTIONS

My office is # 5260, on the 5th floor of the Bahen Centre for Information Technology (BCIT), 40 St. George St, on the downtown (St. George) campus of the University of Toronto. To reach the BCIT:

Public Transit

Take the subway to the Queen’s Park station. Walk west along the north side of College St. Turn right (north) at St. George. Enter the BCIT building, the 2nd door (newer building) on the west side of the street. Take the elevator to the 5th floor.

Driving

Drive to College St., turn north onto Huron (1 block west of St. George, 1 block east of Spadina). Enter the BCIT parking garage and take the elevator to the ground floor. Turn left to enter the lobby, and take the elevator to the 5th floor.

NEWS

Invited talk at GI 2015

I have been asked to give an Invited Talk at GI 2015 in Halifax, NS, June 3-5, 2015. Hope to see you there.

Speaking at Yahoo! Research

I will be giving an invited talk at Yahoo! Research in Sunnyvale on August 8 entitled “Vertical Software Design & Cross-Device Software Tools”.

Capstone Course Petitions

Students interested in taking my capstone design course (CSC490): between August 1 and August 31, send me an email with the subject line “capstone petition”, with the following additional details:

  • Your transcript
  • Your program of study
  • A 1-paragraph description of why you would like to take the course, including how it fits-in to your career goals
  • A 1-paragraph description of a position you have held in which you have demonstrated an ability to work effectively without direct supervision

Speaking at Microsoft Research

I will be speaking at Microsoft Research in Redmond on June 10, entitled “Enabling a Symphony of Devices”.

CHI People’s Choice Best Talk Awards

2014 saw the introduction to CHI of the People’s Choice Best Talk Awards. The top 8 talks among hundreds were chosen by the audience. I’m proud to say 2 of those selected were given by students on my projects: Xiang Anthony Chen for Duet, and Jishuo Yang for Panelrama. Congratulations to them both!

Early Researcher Award

I was honoured to have been selected as a recipient for an Ontario Early Researcher Award. As always, this would not have been possible without the great work of my students and post docs, as well as the wonderful support of the department here at U of T.

CHI Papers Talks Schedule

The CHI advance program has been posted online. My collaborators will be presenting 6 papers at the conference:

  • Monday: Mike Glueck presents Splash! at 4pm in 701A
  • Monday: Anthony Chen presents Duet at 11:00am in Exhibit Hall G
  • Tuesday: Ricardo Jota presents Let’s Kick It at 11am in Exhibit Hall G
  • Wednesday: Peter Hamilton presents Conductor at 2pm in 714AB
  • Wednesday: Jishuo Yang presents Panelrama at 2pm in 714AB
  • Thursday: Thariq Shihipar presents Slide to X at 11am in 701B

CHI 2014 Best Paper Award

The team behind Duet: Exploring joint interactions on a smart phone and a smart watch was pleased to learn the project has been named one of CHI2014′s best papers. We look forward to sharing the work with the conference.

People’s Choice Best Talk Award

The CHI People’s Choice Best Talk Award has been officially announced. If you’re coming to CHI, get ready to pick your favourites for special recognition!

UIST Papers Deadline Set

We are pleased to announce that UIST 2014 papers will be due on April 16 through PCS. The official call will appear on the ACM website shortly.

San Francisco Talks Schedule

I will be in the Bay Area the week of November 17th. My talks schedule is as follows:

Tuesday, November 19 @ UC Berkeley; Wednesday, November 20 @ Google Research; Thursday, November 21 @ Adobe Research; Friday, November 22 @ Stanford.

ACM UIST 2014 PC co-Chair

I have volunteered to co-chair the PC for UIST next year with Mira Dontcheva. Ready your submissions!

Brave NUI World Translated into Korean

Our book, Brave NUI World | Designing Natural User Interfaces for Touch and Gesture, is now available in Korean.

U of T Inventors of the Year

Dr. Ricardo Jota and I were named recipients of U of T’s Inventors of the Year award for 2013. This recognises work built upon our 2012 UIST paper, Designing for Low Latency Direct-Touch Input. The project was co-invented with Steven Sanders and Clifton Forlines of Tactual Labs, where the tech has been spun out, and with the generous support of Microsoft.

CHI 2014: People’s Choice Talk Awards Chair

In the spirit of “no good suggestion goes unpunished”, I have volunteered as CHI’s first chair of “People’s Choice Talk Awards” (for 2014). Our goal is to reward high-quality talks by allowing conference attendees to vote for their favourites. The People’s Choice Awards will be presented at the end of the conference. So, CHI 2014 presenters, be on notice: a good talk can lead to fame and fortune!

Connaught New Researcher Award

I was pleased to learn this week that the Connaught Fund will be sponsoring my lab with a New Researcher Award at the top level of funding. Thank you to U of T for their continued support.

Mike Glueck to receive Best Student Paper award at GI

We learned this morning that Mike Glueck‘s paper, A Model of Navigation for Very Large Data Views, has been selected for the Michael A.J. Sweeney Award for best student paper at GI 2013. Congratulations to Mike, and to our co-author, Tovi Grossman of Autodesk.

Brave NUI World Translated into Chinese

Our book, Brave NUI World | Designing Natural User Interfaces for Touch and Gesture, has been translated into Chinese.

Presenting at GI 2013

Mike Glueck will be presenting our paper, A Model of Navigation for Very Large Data Views, at GI 2013. This work is done in collaboration with Tovi Grossman at Autodesk Research.

Presenting at ACM CHI 2013

My collaborators and I will be presenting 3 papers at ACM CHI 2013, April 29-May 2 in Paris.

Tactual Labs Launched

Tactual Labs is a start-up deciated to the development of technologies related to high-performance interactive systems, building on work done in the lab.

Presenting at ACM UIST 2012

My collaborators and I will be presenting 3 papers at ACM UIST 2012, October 7-10 in Cambridge, MA.

Speaking at SXSW Interactive

I and Kay Hofmeester of the Microsoft Windows team (and my former colleague at Microsoft Surface) will be speaking at SXSW Interactive, March 9-13, in Austin, TX.

news

STUDENTS

I mentor both graduate and undergraduate students who are passionate about inventing the future of human-computer interaction. Undergraduates are typically either engineering students doing thesis work or CS students doing project courses. Graduate students in my group come from diverse backgrounds, but share a record of academic excellence and demonstrated passion for invention. If you are looking for research opportunities, contact me to set-up a time to chat about your interests.

Current Students & Post Docs

Michelle Annett (PDF)
Ricardo Jota (PDF)

Michael Glueck (Ph.D.) 
Peter Hamilton (Ph.D.) 

Rabia Aslam (M.Sc.)
Anuruddha Hettiarachchi (M.Sc.)
Varun Perumal (M.Sc.)
Haijun Xia (M.Sc.)
Yupeng Zhang (M.Sc.)

Adam Hueniken (UG)

U of T Alumni

Peter Hamilton (M.Sc., 2014)
Jishuo Yang (M.Sc., 2014)
Michael Glueck (M.Sc., 2013)

Rebecca Dreezer (M.Sc.A.C., 2013)
David Hoon (M.Sc.A.C., 2013)
Ben Chan (M.Sc.A.C., 2012) 

Andrew Pelegris (UG, 2014)
Benjamin McCanny (UG, 2014)
Eleni Triantafillou (UG, 2014)
Eric J.X. Yao (UG, 2013)
Ankith Giliyar Shanthiraj (UG, 2013)
Thariq Shihipar (UG, 2013)
Yan Sun (UG, 2013)
Jay (Zhe) Yu (UG, 2013) 
Michael Andreae (UG, 2012) 
Stephanie Daoust (Knapp) (UG, 2012)
Faizan Haque (UG, 2012)
Osman Haque (UG, 2012)
Rajavi Shah (UG, 2012)

Alex Mahedy (HS, 2012, 2013)

Former Microsoft Interns

Roland Aigner, Upper Austria University of Applied Sciences
Shaun Kane, University of Washington
Tao Ni, Virginia Tech
Dustin Freeman, University of Toronto

Former MERL Interns

Hao Jiang, Tsinghua University
Peter Brandl, Upper Austria University of Applied Sciences

 

TEACHING

Next course: summer 2015.

students

Research

  • all

    My general area of research is the leveraging of computing technology to enable users to live better lives. This work includes the development of user interface software, interaction methods, sensor hardware, new device form factors, development platforms, and operating system enhancements. Selecting an area of research above will provide more information, and will also filter the list of publications below.

Refereed Conference Papers (full)

Slide1_b

High-rate, low-Latency multi-touch sensing with simultaneous orthogonal multiplexing

Darren Leigh, Clifton Forlines, Ricardo Jota, Steven Sanders, and Daniel Wigdor (2014). High rate, low-latency multi-touch sensing with simultaneous orthogonal multiplexing. In Proceedings of the 27th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology (UIST ’14). ACM, New York, NY, USA, 355-364.

haijun

Zero-latency tapping: using hover information to predict touch locations and eliminate touchdown latency

Haijun Xia, Ricardo Jota, Benjamin McCanny, Zhe Yu, Clifton Forlines, Karan Singh, and Daniel Wigdor. (2014). Zero-latency tapping: using hover information to predict touch locations and eliminate touchdown latency. In Proceedings of the 27th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology (UIST ’14). ACM, New York, NY, USA, 205-214.

Untitled

Duet: Exploring joint interactions on a smart phone and a smart watch

Xiang ‘Anthony’ Chen, Tovi Grossman, Daniel Wigdor, and George Fitzmaurice. 2014. Duet: exploring joint interactions on a smart phone and a smart watch. In Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI ’14). ACM, New York, NY, USA, 159-168.

Untitled

Dive In! Real-time interaction with always-ready, progressively-loaded interactive data visualizations

Michael Glueck, Azam Khan, and Daniel Wigdor. 2014. Dive in!: enabling progressive loading for real-time navigation of data visualizations. In Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI ’14). ACM, New York, NY, USA, 561-570.

Untitled

Conductor: Enabling and understanding cross-device interaction

Peter Hamilton and Daniel Wigdor. 2014. Conductor: enabling and understanding cross-device interaction. In Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI ’14). ACM, New York, NY, USA, 2773-2782.

Untitled

Slide to X: Unlocking the potential of smartphone unlocking

Khai Truong, Thariq Shihipar, and Daniel Wigdor. 2014. Slide to X: unlocking the potential of smartphone unlocking. In Proceedings of the 32nd annual ACM conference on Human factors in computing systems (CHI ’14). ACM, New York, NY, USA, 3635-3644.

Untitled

Panelrama: Enabling easy specification of cross-device web applications

Jishuo Yang and Daniel Wigdor. 2014. Panelrama: enabling easy specification of cross-device web applications. In Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI ’14). ACM, New York, NY, USA, 2783-2792.

stephanie

A field study of multi-device workflows in distributed workspaces

Stephanie Santosa and Daniel Wigdor. 2013. A field study of multi-device workflows in distributed workspaces.  In Proceedings of the 2013 ACM international joint conference on Pervasive and ubiquitous computing (UbiComp ’13). ACM, New York, NY, USA,  63-72.

mglueck

A model of navigation for very large data views

Michael Glueck, Tovi Grossman & Daniel Wigdor. 2013. A Model of Navigation for Very Large Data Views. Graphics Interface (GI ’13). 8 pages.

Capture

How fast is fast enough? A study of the effects of latency in direct-touch pointing tasks

Ricardo Jota, Albert Ng, Paul Dietz, and Daniel Wigdor. 2013. How fast is fast enough?: a study of the effects of latency in direct-touch pointing tasks.  In Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI ’13). ACM, New York, NY, USA,  2291-2300.

meta

Métamorphe: augmenting hotkey usage with actuated keys

Gilles Bailly, Thomas Pietrzak, Jonathan Deber, and Daniel J. Wigdor. 2013. Métamorphe: augmenting hotkey usage with actuated keys.  In Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI ’13). ACM, New York, NY, USA,  563-572.

file1350-2

TrailMap: Facilitating information seeking in a multi-scale digital map via implicit bookmarking

Jian Zhao, Daniel Wigdor, and Ravin Balakrishnan. 2013. TrailMap: facilitating information seeking in a multi-scale digital map via implicit bookmarking.  In Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI ’13). ACM, New York, NY, USA,  3009-3018.

Designing for Low-Latency Direct-Touch Input

Designing for Low-Latency Direct-Touch Input

Albert Ng, Julian Lepinski, Daniel Wigdor, Steven Sanders, and Paul Dietz. 2012. Designing for low-latency direct-touch input. In Proceedings of the 25th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology (UIST ’12). ACM, New York, NY, USA, 453-464. 

FlowBlocks

FlowBlocks: A Multi-Touch UI for Crowd Interaction

Florian Block, Daniel Wigdor, Brenda Caldwell Phillips, Michael S. Horn, and Chia Shen. 2012. FlowBlocks: a multi-touch ui for crowd interaction. In Proceedings of the 25th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology (UIST ’12). ACM, New York, NY, USA, 497-508.

Magic Finger

Magic Finger: Always-Available Input through Finger Instrumentation

Xing-Dong Yang, Tovi Grossman, Daniel Wigdor, and George Fitzmaurice. 2012. Magic finger: always-available input through finger instrumentation. In Proceedings of the 25th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology (UIST ’12). ACM, New York, NY, USA, 147-156.

paperfile463-2

ShoeSense: a new perspective on gestural interaction and wearable applications

Gilles Bailly, Jörg Müller, Michael Rohs, Daniel Wigdor, and Sven Kratz. 2012. ShoeSense: a new perspective on gestural interaction and wearable applications. In Proceedings of the 2012 ACM annual conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI ’12). ACM, New York, NY, USA, 1239-1248.

Snout

Snout: one handed use of capacitive touch devices

Adam Zarek, Daniel Wigdor, and Karan Singh. 2012. SNOUT: one-handed use of capacitive touch devices. In Proceedings of the International Working Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces(AVI ’12), Genny Tortora, Stefano Levialdi, and Maurizio Tucci (Eds.). ACM, New York, NY, USA, 140-147.

image007

Medusa: a proximity-aware multi-touch tabletop

Michelle Annett, Tovi Grossman, Daniel Wigdor, and George Fitzmaurice. 2011. Medusa: a proximity-aware multi-touch tabletop. In Proceedings of the 24th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology (UIST ’11). ACM, New York, NY, USA, 337-346.

image008

Access overlays: improving non-visual access to large touch screens for blind users

Shaun K. Kane, Meredith Ringel Morris, Annuska Z. Perkins, Daniel Wigdor, Richard E. Ladner, and Jacob O. Wobbrock. 2011. Access overlays: improving non-visual access to large touch screens for blind users. In Proceedings of the 24th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology (UIST ’11). ACM, New York, NY, USA, 273-282. 

img7

Typing on flat glass: examining ten-finger expert typing patterns on touch surfaces

Leah Findlater, Jacob O. Wobbrock, and Daniel Wigdor. 2011. Typing on flat glass: examining ten-finger expert typing patterns on touch surfaces. In Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI ’11). ACM, New York, NY, USA, 2453-2462.

img8

Rock & rails: extending multi-touch interactions with shape gestures to enable precise spatial manipulations

Daniel Wigdor, Hrvoje Benko, John Pella, Jarrod Lombardo, and Sarah Williams. 2011. Rock & rails: extending multi-touch interactions with shape gestures to enable precise spatial manipulations.  In Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI ’11). ACM, New York, NY, USA,  1581-1590.

anatonme

AnatOnMe: facilitating doctor-patient communication using a projection-based handheld device

Tao Ni, Amy K. Karlson, and Daniel Wigdor. 2011. AnatOnMe: facilitating doctor-patient communication using a projection-based handheld device.  In Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI ’11). ACM, New York, NY, USA,  3333-3342.

gesture_play

Gesture play: motivating online gesture learning with fun, positive reinforcement and physical metaphors

Andrew Bragdon, Arman Uguray, Daniel Wigdor, Stylianos Anagnostopoulos, Robert Zeleznik, and Rutledge Feman. 2010. Gesture play: motivating online gesture learning with fun, positive reinforcement and physical metaphors.  In ACM International Conference on Interactive Tabletops and Surfaces (ITS ’10). ACM, New York, NY, USA,  39-48.

cscw_2010

WeSearch: supporting collaborative search and sensemaking on a tabletop display

Meredith Ringel Morris, Jarrod Lombardo, and Daniel Wigdor. 2010. WeSearch: supporting collaborative search and sensemaking on a tabletop display.  In Proceedings of the 2010 ACM conference on Computer supported cooperative work (CSCW ’10). ACM, New York, NY, USA,  401-410.

tabletop_2009

ShadowGuides: visualizations for in-situ learning of multi-touch and whole-hand gestures

Dustin Freeman, Hrvoje Benko, Meredith Ringel Morris, and Daniel Wigdor. 2009. ShadowGuides: visualizations for in-situ learning of multi-touch and whole-hand gestures.  In Proceedings of the ACM International Conference on Interactive Tabletops and Surfaces (ITS ’09). ACM, New York, NY, USA,  165-172.

ntlb

Ripples: utilizing per-contact visualizations to improve user interaction with touch displays

Daniel Wigdor, Sarah Williams, Michael Cronin, Robert Levy, Katie White, Maxim Mazeev, and Hrvoje Benko. 2009. Ripples: utilizing per-contact visualizations to improve user interaction with touch displays.  In Proceedings of the 22nd annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology (UIST ’09). ACM, New York, NY, USA,  3-12.

img21

WeSpace: the design development and deployment of a walk-up and share multi-surface visual collaboration system

Daniel Wigdor, Hao Jiang, Clifton Forlines, Michelle Borkin, and Chia Shen. 2009. WeSpace: the design development and deployment of a walk-up and share multi-surface visual collaboration system.  In Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI ’09). ACM, New York, NY, USA,  1237-1246.

livolay

System design for the WeSpace: Linking personal devices to a table-centered multi-user, multi-surface environment

Hao Jiang, Daniel Wigdor, Clifton Forlines, Chia Shen. 2008. System design for the WeSpace: Linking personal devices to a table-centered multi-user, multi-surface environment, Horizontal Interactive Human Computer Systems, 2008. TABLETOP 2008. 3rd IEEE International Workshop on , pp.97-104.

avi_2008

Combining and measuring the benefits of bimanual pen and direct-touch interaction on horizontal interfaces

Peter Brandl, Clifton Forlines, Daniel Wigdor, Michael Haller, and Chia Shen. 2008. Combining and measuring the benefits of bimanual pen and direct-touch interaction on horizontal interfaces.  In Proceedings of the working conference on Advanced visual interfaces (AVI ’08). ACM, New York, NY, USA,  154-161.

tabletop_07_wigdor

Living with a Tabletop: Analysis and Observations of Long Term Office Use of a Multi-Touch Table

Daniel Wigdor, Gerald Penn, Kathy Ryall, Alan Esenther, Chia Shen.2007. Living with a Tabletop: Analysis and Observations of Long Term Office Use of a Multi-Touch Table. Horizontal Interactive Human-Computer Systems, 2007. TABLETOP ’07. Second Annual IEEE International Workshop on, 60-67.

tabletop_07_grossman

Going Deeper: a Taxonomy of 3D on the Tabletop

Tovi Grossman, Daniel Wigdor. Going Deeper: a Taxonomy of 3D on the Tabletop (2007). Horizontal Interactive Human-Computer Systems, 2007. TABLETOP ’07. Second Annual IEEE International Workshop on, 137-144.

uist_07_lucid_touch

Lucid touch: a see-through mobile device

Daniel Wigdor, Clifton Forlines, Patrick Baudisch, John Barnwell, and Chia Shen. 2007. Lucid touch: a see-through mobile device.  In Proceedings of the 20th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology (UIST ’07). ACM, New York, NY, USA,  269-278.

chi_07_wigdor

Perception of elementary graphical elements in tabletop and multi-surface environments

Daniel Wigdor, Chia Shen, Clifton Forlines, and Ravin Balakrishnan. 2007. Perception of elementary graphical elements in tabletop and multi-surface environments.  In Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI ’07). ACM, New York, NY, USA,  473-482.

chi2007_text

Exploring and reducing the effects of orientation on text readability in volumetric displays

Tovi Grossman, Daniel Wigdor, and Ravin Balakrishnan. 2007. Exploring and reducing the effects of orientation on text readability in volumetric displays.  In Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI ’07). ACM, New York, NY, USA,  483-492.

2007_forlines_direct_touch_vs_mouse

Direct-touch vs. mouse input for tabletop displays

Clifton Forlines, Daniel Wigdor, Chia Shen, and Ravin Balakrishnan. 2007. Direct-touch vs. mouse input for tabletop displays. In Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI ’07). ACM, New York, NY, USA, 647-656.

forlines_cscw_2006

Exploring the effects of group size and display configuration on visual search

Clifton Forlines, Chia Shen, Daniel Wigdor, and Ravin Balakrishnan. 2006. Exploring the effects of group size and display configuration on visual search.  In Proceedings of the 2006 20th anniversary conference on Computer supported cooperative work (CSCW ’06). ACM, New York, NY, USA,  11-20.

control-orientation

Effects of display position and control space orientation on user preference and performance

Daniel Wigdor, Chia Shen, Clifton Forlines, and Ravin Balakrishnan. 2006. Effects of display position and control space orientation on user preference and performance.  In Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI ’06), Rebecca Grinter, Thomas Rodden, Paul Aoki, Ed Cutrell, Robin Jeffries, and Gary Olson (Eds.). ACM, New York, NY, USA,  309-318.

rot_and_tran

Rotation and translation mechanisms for tabletop interaction

Mark Hancock, Frederic Vernier, Daniel Wigdor, Sheilagh Carpendale, Chia Shen. (2006). Rotation and translation mechanisms for tabletop interaction. Proceedings of the First IEEE International Workshop on Horizontal Interactive Human-Computer Systems, pp. 79-86.

ecscw2005

Empirical investigation into the effect of orientation on text readability in tabletop displays

Daniel Wigdor and Ravin Balakrishnan. 2005. Empirical investigation into the effect of orientation on text readability in tabletop displays.  In Proceedings of the ninth conference on European Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work (ECSCW’05), Hans Gellersen, Kjeld Schmidt, Michel Beaudouin-Lafon, and Wendy Mackay (Eds.). Springer-Verlag New York, Inc., New York, NY, USA,  205-224.

uist2004_volumetric

Multi-finger gestural interaction with 3d volumetric displays

Tovi Grossman, Daniel Wigdor, and Ravin Balakrishnan. 2004. Multi-finger gestural interaction with 3d volumetric displays.  In Proceedings of the 17th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology (UIST ’04). ACM, New York, NY, USA,  61-70.

chi2004_concurrenttextinput

A comparison of consecutive and concurrent input text entry techniques for mobile phones

Daniel Wigdor and Ravin Balakrishnan. 2004. A comparison of consecutive and concurrent input text entry techniques for mobile phones.  In Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI ’04). ACM, New York, NY, USA,  81-88.

uist2003_tilttext

TiltText: using tilt for text input to mobile phones

Daniel Wigdor and Ravin Balakrishnan. 2003. TiltText: using tilt for text input to mobile phones.  In Proceedings of the 16th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology (UIST ’03). ACM, New York, NY, USA,  81-90.

 
www2002_hg

Hunter gatherer: interaction support for the creation and management of within-web-page collections

m. c. schraefel, Yuxiang Zhu, David Modjeska, Daniel Wigdor, and Shengdong Zhao. 2002. Hunter gatherer: interaction support for the creation and management of within-web-page collections. In Proceedings of the 11th international conference on World Wide Web (WWW ’02). ACM, New York, NY, USA, 172-181.

Refereed Conference Papers (short)

Untitled

Let’s kick it: how to stop wasting the bottom third of your large screen display

Ricardo Jota, Pedro Lopes, Daniel Wigdor, and Joaquim Jorge 2014. Let’s Kick It: How to Stop Wasting the Bottom Third of your Large Screen Display. Conditionally accepted to appear in Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI ’14). ACM, New York, NY, USA.

livolay

LivOlay: interactive ad-hoc registration and overlapping of applications for collaborative visual exploration

Hao Jiang, Daniel Wigdor, Clifton Forlines, Michelle Borkin, Jens Kauffmann, and Chia Shen. 2008. LivOlay: interactive ad-hoc registration and overlapping of applications for collaborative visual exploration. In Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI ’08). ACM, New York, NY, USA, 1357-1360.

uist2006_forlines

Multi-user, multi-display interaction with a single-user, single-display geospatial application

Clifton Forlines, Alan Esenther, Chia Shen, Daniel Wigdor, and Kathy Ryall. 2006. Multi-user, multi-display interaction with a single-user, single-display geospatial application.  In Proceedings of the 19th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology (UIST ’06). ACM, New York, NY, USA,  273-276.

avi_2006

Table-centric interactive spaces for real-time collaboration

Daniel Wigdor, Chia Shen, Clifton Forlines, and Ravin Balakrishnan. 2006. Table-centric interactive spaces for real-time collaboration.  In Proceedings of the working conference on Advanced visual interfaces (AVI ’06). ACM, New York, NY, USA,  103-107.

Invited Papers

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The breadth-depth dichotomy: opportunities and crises in expanding sensing capabilities

Wigdor, D. (2011). The Breadth-Depth Dichotomy: Opportunities and Crises in Expanding Sensing Capabilities. Society for Information Display (SID): Information Display, March 2011.

uxmagazine_vectorized

Natural User Interfaces

Wigdor, D., Wixon, D. (2011). Natural User Interfaces. UX Magazine, April 2011.

ntlb

Architecting next-generation user interfaces

Daniel Wigdor. 2010. Architecting next-generation user interfaces.  In Proceedings of the International Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces (AVI ’10), Giuseppe Santucci (Ed.). ACM, New York, NY, USA,  16-22. Invited submission accompanying 2010 keynote address.

uist2004_volumetric

Multi-finger gestural interaction with 3D volumetric displays

Tovi Grossman, Daniel Wigdor, and Ravin Balakrishnan. 2005. Multi-finger gestural interaction with 3D volumetric displays. In ACM SIGGRAPH 2005 Papers (SIGGRAPH ’05), Markus Gross (Ed.). ACM, New York, NY, USA, 931-931.

publications

BOOKS

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Brave NUI World (Korean)

Daniel Wigdor and Dennis Wixon, 2013. 

Brave NUI World: Designing Natural User Interfaces for Touch and Gesture (Korean Edition). Morgan Kaufmann Publishers Inc., San Francisco, CA, USA. ISBN: 9788994774169.

s22701380

Brave NUI World (Chinese)

Daniel Wigdor and Dennis Wixon, 2013. Brave NUI World: Designing Natural User Interfaces for Touch and Gesture (Chinese Edition). Morgan Kaufmann Publishers Inc., San Francisco, CA, USA. ISBN: 9787115293060.

Capture

Computer Science Handbook, Third Edition

Ken Hinckley, Robert J. K. Jacob, Colin Ware, Jacob Wobbrock, Daniel Wigdor. Input/output devices and interaction techniques. In Computer Science Handbook, Third Edition. Allen B. Tucker (Ed.). Chapman & Hall/CRC. Danvers, MA. ISBN: 978-1439898703.

capture2

The Human-Computer Interaction Handbook, Third Edition

Ken Hinckley and Daniel Wigdor (2011). Input Technologies and Techniques. In The Human-Computer Interaction Handbook: Fundamentals, Evolving Technologies and Emerging Applications, Third Edition. Andrew Sears and Julie A. Jacko (eds). CRC Press. ISBN: 978-1439829431.

Brave NUI World

Brave NUI World

Daniel Wigdor and Dennis Wixon. 2011. Brave NUI World: Designing Natural User Interfaces for Touch and Gesture. Morgan Kaufmann Publishers Inc., San Francisco, CA, USA.  ISBN: 978-0123822314.

Tabletops - Horizontal Interactive Displays

Tabletops – Horizontal Interactive Displays

Tovi Grossman & Daniel Wigdor (2010). On, Above, and Beyond: Taking Tabletops to the Third Dimension. In Tabletops – Horizontal Interactive Displays. Christian Mueller-Tomfelde (ed.). Springer. ISBN: 978-1-84996-112-7.

Tabletops - Horizontal Interactive Displays

Tabletops – Horizontal Interactive Displays

Hrvoje Benko & Daniel Wigdor (2010). Imprecision, Inaccuracy, and Frustration: The Tale of Touch Input. In Tabletops – Horizontal Interactive Displays. Christian Mueller-Tomfelde (ed.). Springer. ISBN: 978-1-84996-112-7.

Interactive Artifacts and Furniture Supporting Collaborative Work and Learning

Interactive Artifacts and Furniture Supporting Collaborative Work and Learning

Chia Shen, Kathy Ryall, Clifton Forlines, Alan Esenther, Frédéric Vernier, Katherine Everitt, Mike Wu, Daniel Wigdor, Meredith Ringel Morris, Mark Hancock, and Edward Tse (2008). Collaborative Tabletop Research and Evaluation. In Interactive Artifacts and Furniture Supporting Collaborative Work and Learning. Pierre Dillenbourg, Jeffrey Huang, and Mauro Cherubini (Eds). Springer. ISBN 978-1441945815.

books

PATENTS

Always available input through finger instrumentation

Yang, X-D., Grossman, T., Wigdor, D., Fitzmaurice, G. (pending). Always available input through finger instrumentation. US patent application no. 14/044,678. Washington, DC: US Patent and Trademark Office.

Proximity-aware multi-touch tabletop

Annett, M., Grossman, T., Wigdor, D., Fitzmaurice, G. (pending). Proximity-aware multi-touch tabletop. US patent application no. US 13/651,263. Washington, DC: US Patent and Trademark Office.

Proximity-aware multi-touch tabletop

Annett, M., Grossman, T., Wigdor, D., Fitzmaurice, G. (pending). Proximity-aware Multi-touch tabletop US patent application no. US 13/651,257. Washington, DC: US Patent and Trademark Office.

Hybrid systems and methods for low-latency user input processing and feedback

Wigdor, D., Sanders, S., Costa, R., Forlines, C. (pending). Hybrid systems and methods for low-latency user input processing and feedback. US patent application no. US 61/710,256, 14/046,819, 14/046,823. PCT application no. PCT/US13/63569. Washington, DC: US Patent and Trademark Office.

Snapping user interface elements based on touch input

Hoover, P., Sivaji, V., Lombardo, J., Wigdor, D. Snapping user interface elements based on touch input. US patent application number 12/907,887. Washington, DC: US Patent and Trademark Office.

Integrated virtual environment

Wigdor, D.,Tedesco, M., Wilson, A., Clavin, J. (2012). Integrated virtual environment.  US patent application number 13/084,786. Washington, DC: US Patent and Trademark Office.

Theme-based augmentation of photorepresentative view

Tedesco, M., Wigdor, D. (2012). Theme-based augmentation of photorepresentative view. US patent application number 13/044,895. Washington, DC: US Patent and Trademark Office.

Augmented view of advertisements

Clavin, J., Tedesco, M., Wigdor, D. (2012). Augmented view of advertisements. US patent no. 8,670,183. Washington, DC: US Patent and Trademark Office.

Tactile tile vocalization

Perkins, A., Hayes, S., Morris., M., Wigdor, D., Lombardo, J., Aumiller, C. (2011). Tactile tile vocalization. US patent application number 12/791,962. Washington, DC: US Patent and Trademark Office.

Interfacing with a computing application using a multi-digit sensor

Benko, H., Freeman, D., Wigdor, D. (2011). Interfacing with a computing application using a multi-digit sensor. US patent application number 12/767,804. Washington, DC: US Patent and Trademark Office.

Collaborative search and share

Wigdor, D., Morris, M., Larco, V., Lombardo, J., McDirmid, S., LaRue, M., Gil, E., Lobardo, J. (2011). Collaborative search and share. US patent application number 12/771,282. Washington, DC: US Patent and Trademark Office.

Hand posture mode constraints on touch input

Hoover, P., Oustiougov, M., Wigdor, D., Benko, H., Lombardo, J. (2011). Hand posture mode constraints on touch input. US patent application number 12/650,089. Washington, DC: US Patent and Trademark Office.

Three-state touch input system

Wigdor, D., Lombardo, J., Perkins, A.G.Z., Hayes, S. (2011). Three-state touch input system. US patent application number 12/630,381. Washington, DC: US Patent and Trademark Office.

Multi-modal interaction on multi-touch display

Wigdor, D., Hofmeester, G., Hoover, P. (2011). Multi-modal interaction on multi-touch display. US patent no. 8,487,888. Washington, DC: US Patent and Trademark Office.

Teaching gesture initiation with registration posture guides

Benko, H., Wigdor, D. (2011). Teaching gesture initiation with registration posture guides. US patent application number 12/619,585. Washington, DC: US Patent and Trademark Office.

Teaching gestures with offset contact silhouettes

Benko, H., Wigdor, D., Freeman, D. (2011). Teaching gestures with offset contact silhouettes. US patent application number 12/619,584. Washington, DC: US Patent and Trademark Office.

Interactive display system with contact geometry interface

Cordon, L., Levy, R., Ramani, S., Wigdor, D., Wu, J., Middleton, I., Hoover, P., Subramaniam, S., Pessoa, C. (2011). Interactive display system with contact geometry interface. US patent no. 8,390,600. Washington, DC: US Patent and Trademark Office.

Displaying GUI elements on natural user interfaces

Wigdor, D., Hoover, P. (2011). Displaying GUI elements on natural user interfaces. US patent no. 8,261,212. Washington, DC: US Patent and Trademark Office.

Manipulation of graphical elements via gestures

Larco, V., Wigdor, D., Williams, S. (2011). Manipulation of graphical elements via gestures. US patent application number 12/541,795.  Washington, DC: US Patent and Trademark Office.

Natural input trainer for gestural instruction

Wigdor, D. (2011) Natural input trainer for gestural instruction. US patent application number 12/619,575. Washington, DC: US Patent and Trademark Office.

Controlling touch input modes

Wigdor, D. (2010). Controlling touch input modes. US patent application number 12/479,031. Washington, DC: US Patent and Trademark Office.

Visual response to touch inputs

Levy, R., Williams, S., Cronin, M., Mazeev, M., Beatty, B., Wigdor, D. (2010). Visual response to touch inputs. US patent no. 8,446,376. Washington, DC: US Patent and Trademark Office.

Inverted direct touch sensitive input devices

Wigdor, D., Leigh, D., Forlines, C., Shen, C., Barnwell, J., Shipman, S. (2007). Inverted direct touch sensitive input devices.  US patent application number 11/455,150. Washington, DC: US Patent and Trademark Office.

Method and system for adapting a single-client, single-user application to a multi-user, multi-client environment

Forlines, C., Esenther, A., Shen, C., Wigdor, D., Ryall, K. (2007). Method and system for adapting a single-client, single-user application to a multi-user, multi-client environment. US patent application number 11/430,234. Washington, DC: US Patent and Trademark Office.

Concurrent data entry for a portable device

Wigdor, D. (2003). Concurrent data entry for a portable device. US Patent No. 7,721,968. Washington, DC: US Patent and
Trademark Office

patents

Service to the Community

Juries & Grant Panels

NSF Funding Panel (2010, 2011, 2013) National Science Foundation, USA
College of Reviewers (2013) Mitacs
Bill Buxton Award (2013) Top Canadian HCI PhD Thesis
ACM CHI: Student Research Competition Judge (2010) Human Factors in Computing Systems

Program Committees: Chairing 

ACM UIST: Program Committee co-Chair (2014) User Interface Software and Technology
ACM ITS: Program Committee co-Chair (2010, 2011) Interactive Tabletops and Surfaces

Program Committees: Membership

ACM CHI: Program Committee Associate Chair (2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014) Human Factors in Computing Systems
ACM UIST: Program Committee member (2010, 2012, 2015) User Interface Software and Technology
ACM CSCW: Program Committee member (2013) Computer Supported Cooperative Work
DIS: Program Committee Associate Chair (2012) Designing Interactive Systems
GI: Program Committee member (2011) Graphics Interfaces
Mobile HCI: Program Committee member (2010) HCI with Mobile Devices & Services
ACM IUI: Program Committee member (2009) Intelligent User Interfaces
ACM CHI: Workshops Committee member (2010) Human Factors in Computing Systems
AVI PPD Workshop: Program Committee member (2008,2010) Advanced Visual Interfaces: Touch & Multi-Display
IFIP Interact: Program Committee member (2009) Human Computer Interaction
ACM ITS: Program Committee member (2007, 2008) Interactive Tabletops and Surfaces
CollabTech: Program Committee member (2008)Conference on Collaboration Technologies

Organizing Committees: Content Management Roles

ACM CHI: People’s Choice Best Talks Award Founding Chair (2014) Human Factors in Computing Systems
ACM CHI: Best of CHI co-Chair (2014) Human Factors in Computing Systems
ACM CHI: alt.chi co-Chair (2010, 2011) Human Factors in Computing Systems
ACM SIGGRAPH: e-Tech Exhibition Curator (2009) Computer Graphics & Interactive Techniques
ACM UIST: Demonstrations co-Chair (2007) User Interface Software & Technology

Invited Reviews: Conferences

ACM CHI: Papers & Notes (2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2015)   Human Factors in Computing Systems
ACM UIST: Papers & Notes (2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2011) User Interface Software & Technology
ACM CHI: Student Design Competition (2006, 2007, 2008, 2009) Human Factors in Computing Systems
ACM CHI: Student Research Competition Judge (2010) Human Factors in Computing Systems
ACM CHI: Works in Progress (2009) Human Factors in Computing Systems
ACM CHI: Video Proceedings (2009) Human Factors in Computing Systems
ACM CSCW: Papers (2010) Computer   Supported Cooperative Works
ACM EICS: Papers (2013) Engineering   Interactive Computing Systems
ACM UIST: Posters Committee (2006) User Interface Software & Technology
ACM SIGGRAPH: Papers (2008, 2012, 2013) Computer Graphics & Interactive Techniques
Mobile HCI: Papers (2013) Human-computer   interaction with mobile devices
UBICOMP: Papers (2009, 2011) Ubiquitous Computing
IEEE ISWC: Papers (2005) Wearable Computers
GI: Papers (2008, 2013) Graphics Interface
TEI: Papers (2010) Tangible and Embedded Interaction

Invited Reviews: Journals

ToCHI (2012, 2013) ACM  Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction
CAG (2013) Computers & Graphics
IJHCS (2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011) International Journal of Human-Computer Studies
IEEE CG&A (2006) IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications

Invited Reviews: Grants & Organizational Reviews

ISF (2014) Israel Science Foundation
FWF (2013) Austrian Science Fund, Austria
INRIA internal review (2013) INRIA, France
SIMI (2013) French National Research Agency
NSERC Discovery Grants (2012) National Science and Engineering Research Council, Canada

Conference Organization

ACM UIST: Fundraising Chair (2011, 2012, 2013) User Interface Software & Technology
ACM ITS: Proceedings Chair (2008, 2009) Interactive Tabletops & Surfaces
ACM ITS: Publicity Chair (2007) Interactive Tabletops & Surfaces
ACM ITS: Student Volunteers Chair (2007) Interactive Tabletops & Surfaces
I
EEE ISWC: Sponsorship & Exhibits Chair (2007) Wearable Computers

professional-activities

BIOGRAPHY

Daniel Wigdor is an assistant professor of computer science and co-director of the Dynamic Graphics Project at the University of Toronto. His research is in the area of human-computer interaction, with major focuses on the architecture of highly-performant UI’s, on development methods for ubiquitous computing, and on post-WIMP interaction methods. Before joining the faculty at U of T in 2011, Daniel was a researcher at Microsoft Research, the user experience architect of the Microsoft Surface Table, and a company-wide expert in user interfaces for new technologies. Simultaneously, he served as an affiliate assistant professor in both the Department of Computer Science & Engineering and the Information School at the University of Washington. Prior to 2008, he was a fellow at the Initiative in Innovative Computing at Harvard University, and conducted research as part of the DiamondSpace project at Mitsubishi Electric Research Labs. He is co-founder of Iota Wireless, a startup dedicated to the commercialization of his research in mobile-phone gestural interaction, and of Tactual Labs, a startup dedicated to the commercialization of his research in high-performance, low-latency user input. For his research, he has been awarded an Ontario Early Researcher Award, as well as best paper awards or honorable mentions at CHI 2014, Graphics Interface 2013, CHI 2011, and UIST 2004. Two of his projects were selected as the People’s Choice Best Talks at CHI 2014.

Daniel is the co-author of Brave NUI World | Designing Natural User Interfaces for Touch and Gesturethe first practical book for the design of touch and gesture interfaces. He has also published dozens of other works as invited book chapters and papers in leading international publications and conferences, and is an author of over three dozen patents and pending patent applications. Daniel has been asked by leading companies to testify as an expert witness before courts in the United Kingdom and the United States. Further information, including publications and videos demonstrating some of his research, can be found at www.dgp.toronto.edu/~dwigdor.

 

biography